Default training installation for wizzlern.
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  1. // $Id: INSTALL.txt,v 2008/07/09 19:15:59 goba Exp $
  3. ---------------------
  4. * Requirements
  5. * Optional requirements
  6. * Installation
  7. * Drupal administration
  8. * Customizing your theme(s)
  9. * Multisite Configuration
  10. * More Information
  12. ------------
  13. Drupal requires a web server, PHP 4 (4.3.5 or greater) or PHP 5
  14. ( and either MySQL ( or PostgreSQL
  15. ( The Apache web server and MySQL database are
  16. recommended; other web server and database combinations such as IIS and
  17. PostgreSQL have been tested to a lesser extent. When using MySQL, version 4.1.1
  18. or greater is recommended to assure you can safely transfer the database.
  19. For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, see "Requirements"
  20. ( in the Drupal handbook.
  21. For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using
  22. a variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
  23. ( in the Drupal handbook.
  25. --------------
  26. - To use XML-based services such as the Blogger API and RSS syndication,
  27. you will need PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default.
  28. - To use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you will need
  29. the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess files. For
  30. Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Using Clean URLs with IIS"
  31. ( in the Drupal handbook.
  32. - Various Drupal features require that the web server process (for
  33. example, httpd) be able to initiate outbound connections. This is usually
  34. possible, but some hosting providers or server configurations forbid such
  35. connections. The features that depend on this functionality include the
  36. integrated "Update status" module (which downloads information about
  37. available updates of Drupal core and any installed contributed modules and
  38. themes), the ability to log in via OpenID, fetching aggregator feeds, or
  39. other network-dependent services.
  41. ------------
  43. You can obtain the latest Drupal release from The files
  44. are in .tar.gz format and can be extracted using most compression tools. On a
  45. typical Unix command line, use:
  46. wget
  47. tar -zxvf drupal-x.x.tar.gz
  48. This will create a new directory drupal-x.x/ containing all Drupal files
  49. and directories. Move the contents of that directory into a directory within
  50. your web server's document root or your public HTML directory:
  51. mv drupal-x.x/* drupal-x.x/.htaccess /var/www/html
  52. If you would like to have the default English interface translated to a
  53. different language, we have good news. You can install and use Drupal in
  54. other languages from the start. Check whether a released package of the
  55. language desired is available for this Drupal version at
  56. and download the package. Extract
  57. the contents to the same directory where you extracted Drupal into.
  59. Drupal comes with a default.settings.php file in the sites/default
  60. directory. The installer uses this file as a template to create your
  61. settings file using the details you provide through the install process.
  62. To avoid problems when upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with an actual
  63. settings file. You must create a file named settings.php. You may do so
  64. by making a copy of default.settings.php (or create an empty file with
  65. this name in the same directory). For example, (from the installation
  66. directory) make a copy of the default.settings.php file with the command:
  67. cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
  68. Next, give the web server write privileges to the sites/default/settings.php
  69. file with the command (from the installation directory):
  70. chmod o+w sites/default/settings.php
  71. So that the files directory can be created automatically, give the web server
  72. write privileges to the sites/default directory with the command (from the
  73. installation directory):
  74. chmod o+w sites/default
  76. Drupal requires access to a database in order to be installed. Your database
  77. user will need sufficient privileges to run Drupal. Additional information
  78. about privileges, and instructions to create a database using the command
  79. line are available in INSTALL.mysql.txt (for MySQL) or INSTALL.pgsql.txt
  80. (for PostgreSQL).
  81. To create a database using PHPMyAdmin or a web-based control panel consult
  82. the documentation or ask your webhost service provider.
  83. Take note of the username, password, database name and hostname as you
  84. create the database. You will enter these items in the install script.
  86. To run the install script point your browser to the base URL of your website
  87. (e.g.,
  88. You will be guided through several screens to set up the database,
  89. create tables, add the first user account and provide basic web
  90. site settings.
  91. The install script will attempt to create a files storage directory
  92. in the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the
  93. files directory may be changed after Drupal is installed). In some
  94. cases, you may need to create the directory and modify its permissions
  95. manually. Use the following commands (from the installation directory)
  96. to create the files directory and grant the web server write privileges to it:
  97. mkdir sites/default/files
  98. chmod o+w sites/default/files
  99. The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
  100. the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. However, you
  101. may need to manually write-protect them using the commands (from the
  102. installation directory):
  103. chmod a-w sites/default/settings.php
  104. chmod a-w sites/default
  105. If you make manual changes to the file later, be sure to protect it again
  106. after making your modifications. Failure to remove write permissions to that
  107. file is a security risk. Although the default location for the settings.php
  108. file is at sites/default/settings.php, it may be in another location
  109. if you use the multi-site setup, as explained below.
  111. When the install script succeeds, you will be directed to the "Welcome"
  112. page, and you will be logged in as the administrator already. Proceed with
  113. the initial configuration steps suggested on the "Welcome" page.
  114. If the default Drupal theme is not displaying properly and links on the page
  115. result in "Page Not Found" errors, try manually setting the $base_url variable
  116. in the settings.php file if not already set. It's currently known that servers
  117. running FastCGI can run into problems if the $base_url variable is left
  118. commented out (see
  120. The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used
  121. to store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by Drupal.
  122. After installation, the settings for the file system path may be modified
  123. to store uploaded files in a different location.
  124. It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
  125. * your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase
  126. (modify the file system path of each installation to a different
  127. directory so that uploads do not overlap between installations); or,
  128. * your site runs a number of web server front-ends behind a load
  129. balancer or reverse proxy (modify the file system path on each
  130. server to point to a shared file repository).
  131. To modify the file system path:
  132. * Ensure that the new location for the path exists or create it if
  133. necessary. To create a new directory named uploads, for example,
  134. use the following command from a shell or system prompt (while in
  135. the installation directory):
  136. mkdir uploads
  137. * Ensure that the new location for the path is writable by the web
  138. server process. To grant write permissions for a directory named
  139. uploads, you may need to use the following command from a shell
  140. or system prompt (while in the installation directory):
  141. chmod o+w uploads
  142. * Access the file system path settings in Drupal by selecting these
  143. menu items from the Navigation menu:
  144. Administer > Site configuration > File system
  145. Enter the path to the new location (e.g.: uploads) at the File
  146. System Path prompt.
  147. Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
  148. unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
  149. on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
  150. to the new location.
  151. Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
  152. CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
  153. running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
  154. this optional security measure, use the following command from a shell or
  155. system prompt (while in the installation directory):
  156. chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
  157. Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide
  158. all documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of
  159. the Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
  160. name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
  161. For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux, Unix,
  162. and Mac file permissions" ( or "Modifying
  163. Windows file permissions" ( in the online
  164. handbook.
  166. Many Drupal modules have periodic tasks that must be triggered by a cron
  167. maintenance task, including search module (to build and update the index
  168. used for keyword searching), aggregator module (to retrieve feeds from other
  169. sites), ping module (to notify other sites about new or updated content), and
  170. system module (to perform routine maintenance and pruning on system tables).
  171. To activate these tasks, call the cron page by visiting
  172., which, in turn, executes tasks on behalf
  173. of installed modules.
  174. Most systems support the crontab utility for scheduling tasks like this. The
  175. following example crontab line will activate the cron tasks automatically on
  176. the hour:
  177. 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1
  178. More information about cron maintenance tasks are available in the help pages
  179. and in Drupal's online handbook at Example scripts can
  180. be found in the scripts/ directory.
  182. ---------------------
  183. A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration with only a
  184. few active modules and minimal user access rights.
  185. Use your administration panel to enable and configure services. For example:
  186. General Settings Administer > Site configuration > Site information
  187. Enable Modules Administer > Site building > Modules
  188. Configure Themes Administer > Site building > Themes
  189. Set User Permissions Administer > User management > Permissions
  190. For more information on configuration options, read the instructions which
  191. accompany the different configuration settings and consult the various help
  192. pages available in the administration panel.
  193. Community-contributed modules and themes are available at
  195. -------------------------
  196. Now that your installation is running, you will want to customize the look of
  197. your site. Several sample themes are included and more can be downloaded from
  199. Simple customization of your theme can be done using only CSS. Further changes
  200. require understanding the phptemplate engine that is part of Drupal. See
  201. to find out more.
  203. -----------------------
  204. A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
  205. its own individual configuration.
  206. Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
  207. directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file which specifies the
  208. configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to copy
  209. the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate. The
  210. new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for
  211. could be in 'sites/' (note that 'www.'
  212. should be omitted if users can access your site at
  213. Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
  214. subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example,,,
  215. and can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The
  216. setup for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
  217. sites/default/settings.php
  218. sites/
  219. sites/
  220. sites/
  221. When searching for a site configuration (for example,
  222. Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
  223. first configuration it finds:
  224. sites/
  225. sites/
  226. sites/
  227. sites/
  228. sites/
  229. sites/
  230. sites/default/settings.php
  231. If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
  232. deepest subdomain. For example: could be loaded
  233. from sites/ The port number will be removed according to
  234. the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
  235. subdomain.
  236. Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
  237. addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
  238. To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
  239. directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
  240. has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
  241. accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
  242. sites/
  243. settings.php
  244. themes/custom_theme
  245. modules/custom_module
  246. NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
  247. settings, consult the Drupal handbook at
  248. For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multi-site
  249. configuration, see step 6 above.
  251. ----------------
  252. - For additional documentation, see the online Drupal handbook at
  254. - For a list of security announcements, see the "Security announcements" page
  255. at (available as an RSS feed). This page also
  256. describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
  257. - For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to report
  258. a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the "Security team"
  259. page at
  260. - For information about the wide range of available support options, see the
  261. "Support" page at