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Bèr Kessels 57d82cbe89 Merge pull request #1 from kfirbreger/patch-1 8 years ago
mechanize Add mechanize test and dev scripts and documentation for them. 9 years ago Update 8 years ago Add module and info. 9 years ago
mobile.module Add module and info. 9 years ago Add module and info. 9 years ago


Mobile leverages Varnish proxy for switching to a mobile theme.

In contrary to existing modules for Drupal that give mobile support, this module has:

  • High performance.
  • A simple and predictable switching logic.
  • No in-database settings, simple to deploy.

Because of this, we made some choices, which means it does not have:

  • Mobile detection. Varnish takes care of that.
  • User-preferences: users cannot change the theme with e.g. a link.

The only options you need to set are:

  • What theme is the mobile theme, what is the tablet theme and what is the desktop theme.
  • The urls that belong to a profile, e.g. for mobile and for desktop.

Note that one could optionally set the proxy to do the redirecting. That would take some load from Drupal, but it would spread out the configuration over the settings in Drupal and the varnish conf. If you want to benefit from that, you’ll need to hack out the hook_boot, elswise the code in Drupal will be loaded nonetheless.


Installation and configuration requires actions in Drupal and in Varnish.


Install the module just like all other modules. This module has no admin or configuration screens.

Add the settings to your settings.php:

$conf["mobile"]["desktop"] = array(
  "theme" => "my_desktop_theme",
  "url"   => "",
$conf["mobile"]["tablet"] = array(
  "theme" => "my_touch_theme",
  "url"   => "",
$conf["mobile"]["mobile"] = array(
  "theme" => "my_mobile_theme",
  "url"   => "",

Settings are an array of arrays with arrays (Hey, it’s Drupal after all!). The first key, is the namespace for this module:

$conf["mobile"] // Everything under here is part of settings for this module

The second ring is an array which describes the devices. This will react to the X-Devise-headers.

$conf["mobile"]["foo"] // will react to `X-Device = 'foo'`.

The third ring is the actual per-device setting. It has two keys: “theme” and “url”.

  • theme a string representing the system name for the theme. Can be looked up in e.g. the system table in Drupal with select * from system where type = "theme"
  • url the URL, without protocol and path, but with optional port (defaults to :80). Mobile module will trigger on this item too.

Development and testing.

Testing can be done with TamperData to set the X-Devise-header from within Firefox.

A better option is to use the provided Mechanize scripts; they forge the headers. These scripts are hackish, have hardcoded values and need to be opened up and edited before you can use them.

$ cd ./mechanize
$ gem install "mechanize"

# Runs a script that manually sets headers.
$ ruby ./self_set_header.rb
# Runs a script that sets the user agent; Varnish should pick it up.
$ ruby ./pass_trough_proxy.rb


You will need to add simple mobile-agent detection to the proxy. It is advised to keep this as simple as possible; else false-positives (desktop-browsers wrongfully detected as a mobile browser) might make things harder.Below is taken from Tom Deryckere’s post and adapted for this module. Use this as example, please don’t copy-paste it blindly into your Varnish. Things will break and you will be the one to blame. At least try to understand the logic.

# Default to thinking it's a PC
set req.http.X-Device = "desktop";

if (req.http.User-Agent ~ "iPad" ) {
  # It says its a iPad - so let's give them the tablet-site
  set req.http.X-Device = "tablet";
elsif (req.http.User-Agent ~ "iP(hone|od)" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "Android" ) {
  # It says its a iPhone, iPod or Android - so let's give them the touch-site..
  set req.http.X-Device = "mobile";
elsif (req.http.User-Agent ~ "SymbianOS" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "^BlackBerry" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "^SonyEricsson" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "^Nokia" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "^SAMSUNG" || req.http.User-Agent ~ "^LG") {
  # Some other sort of mobile
  set req.http.X-Device = "mobile";

Add this to your Varnish configuration, e.g. in /etc/varnish/conf.d/devise-detect.vcl

Theme switching and redirection logic

The switching and redirection logic is kept as simple and predictable as possible. This to avoid any edge-cases and weird bugs.

  • Varnish-header X-Devise dictates what profile should be activated; regardless of the url the user is on.
  • The url the user is on, is compared to the url the user should be on, according to the profile given with the X-Devise-header.
    • If they do not match, the user is redirected.
    • If they match, the theme for the profile will be activated.

This means:

  • One URL will always serve the same theme. This makes caching a lot more predictable and simpler.
  • Users will always be redirected to the URL they should belong on, based on the devise-detection in the proxy.

Situation: varnish-headers are off:

  • User visits “” the theme is set to “my_desktop_theme”.
  • User visits “” theme is set to “my_touch_theme”.
  • User visits “” theme is set to “my_mobile_theme”.

Nothing else is done, issued or invoked.

Situation: varnish-headers are on:

  • User visits “” with a desktop-browser, theme is set to “my_desktop_theme”. No redirect.
  • User visits “” with a tablet, theme is set to “my_touch_theme”. No redirect.
  • User visits “” with a mobile devise, theme is set to “my_mobile_theme”. No redirect.
  • User visits “” with a tablet, user is redirected to “”, then theme is set to “my_touch_theme”.
  • User visits “” with a mobile devise, user is redirected to “”, then theme is set to “my_mobile_theme”.
  • User visits “” with a desktop-browser, user is redirected to “”, then theme is set to “my_touch_theme”.
  • etceteras.

Different settings for sites

Many modules that handle “mobile” do much more then handling mobile. They, for example, offer options to have alternative frontpages based on the device. This module does nothing of such. It delegates this to Drupal, which is more sturdy, predictable and performant.

Say, you want a different title and frontpage for tables and mobile, here is how to achieve that.


A setup with mobile where

  • is the “desktop”
  • is the “tablet/touch” version.
  • is the “mobile” version.


This all works, and user is correctly redirected and gets correct theme based on the Varnish Headers.


Add three so-called “multisite environments”:

  • Create three directories; from Drupal’s docroot:
    • sites/
    • sites/
    • sites/
  • Add cleaned and empty settings.php files in there, then add a little content;

for example sites/


  # This file extends the default settings.php.
  require "../default/settings.php";

  # And then overrides settings.
  $conf["site_frontpage"] = "home-touch";
  $conf["site_name"] = ", now 100% tablet-compatible!"

This sets the url for the homepage to “home-touch”, where you can serve alternative content for the “touch” devices. It also changes the site_name which appears in the title of the site.

You can change any settings in these settings.php-files, including memory-limits (e.g. touch-devises and mobile might never need logged-in users and can run with much slimmer PHP-threads), database-credentials (e.g. to use a slave database-server for mobile) and so on.


This setup is also reasonably thread-safe. Not much (so, actually, it is simply not threadsafe at all, there ain’t such thing as “a littlebit threadsafe”) but a lot more threadsafe then most other mobile environments who attempt to set these global(!) persistent(!) variables in-thread. Affecting all other running threads, regardless of their “mobile-status”. In any case: never, ever set these variables in the hook_init and its friends. Ever.


Bèr Kessels For Dutch Open Projects


Varnish proxy, or another proxy that can send an X-Device header.


Since the protocol is hardcoded into the url-setting, you cannot dynamically switch to and from https. Dynamically redirecting to and from https might also conflict with other modules made for this purpose. We should make a detection of http versus https and redirect the user to the same protocol he or she is already on.

Drush breaks; mobile should be

  • Wrapped in a condition so it does not redirect etc. in case of Drush and CLI
  • aware of Drush commandline-options to set Varnish-headers.

Known issues

Drupal does not allow wap:// or mobile:// protocol, only a subset of undocumented protocols. You cannot redirect to these kind of URLS.

This module will not work together with modules that do redirections (such as mobile tools, domain-access, securepages), nor with themes that handle mobile detection (and redirects) themselves. If you run into conflicts, just remove the other module :).